|Paper title:||The Causes Of The Rwanda Crisis And The ‘Postcolonial Syndrome’
|Published in:||Issue 2 (Vol. 28) / 2022
|Abstract:|| The investigation focuses on the Rwanda crisis and begins with a brief introduction before looking into the historical circumstances preceding the 1994 genocide. It highlights the actual causes of the genocide and the Belgian colonisers’ policies (and, to a lesser extent, the policies of the German colonisers before them), which amplified the differences between the Hutu and the Tutsi. The article outlines how Rwanda became a postcolonial state, where old rivalries turned violent and resulted in massacres. Important factors were also the poor financial state of the country and the fact that Rwanda was a densely populated country, which should be seen in connection with Europe's "divide and rule" policy. Rwanda suffered as a postcolonial state because of the various parties' conflicting views on power sharing, as well as the International Community's support for an agreement that mostly benefited the minority (the Tutsi). Even if the Arusha Accords were designed to "repair" the circumstances of an already failing post-colonial experiment, the pressure used by Western circles to accept them undermined the power of the majority (Hutu) by causing additional damages rather than eliminating the previously existing ones.
|Keywords:|| Rwanda, Hutu, Tutsi, genocide, massacre, postcolonialism
1. Arieff Alexis, Rwanda: in Brief (Updated May, 2019), Rwanda: in Brief (Up¬dated February, 2021), CRS Report, Version 12, pp. 1-12, https://crsreports.congress.gov/product/pdf/R/R44402/12
2. Betts F. Raymond, Decolonization. A brief history of the world, in Bogaerts Els, Raben Remco (Eds.), Beyond Empire and Nation. The decolonization of African and Asian societies, 1930s-1960s, Leiden, KITLV Press, 2012, pp. 23-37.
3. Bhambra K. Gurminder, Postcolonial and Decolonial Dialogues, in “Postcolonial Studies”, Vol. 17, 2014, No. 2, pp. 115-121.
4. Brown Mark, Colonial States, Colonial Rule, Colonial Governmentalities: implications for the study of historical state crime, in “State Crime Journal”, Vol. 7, 2018, No. 2, p. 173-198.
5. Chrétien Jean-Pierre, RTLM Propaganda: the Democratic Alibi, in Thompson Allan (Ed.), The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, London, Pluto Press, 2007, pp. 55-61.
6. Dallaire Roméo, Shake Hands with the Devil. The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda, London, Arrow Books, 2004.
7. Des Forges Alison, Call to Genocide, in Allan Thompson (Ed.), The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, London, Pluto Press, 2007, pp. 41-54.
8. Guichaoua André, From War to Genocide. Criminal Politics in Rwanda, 1990-1994, Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 2015.
9. Jessee Erin, Negotiating Genocide in Rwanda, Cham, Palgrave Macmillan, 2017.
10. Kabanda Marcel, Kangura: the Triumph of Propaganda Refined, in Thompson Allan (Ed.), The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, London, Pluto Press, 2007, pp. 62-72.
11. Keane Fergal, Season of Blood. A Rwandan Journey, London, Viking, 1995.
12. Kennedy Dane, Decolonization. A Very Short Introduction, New York, Oxford University Press, 2016.
13. Kuperman J. Alan, The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention. Genocide in Rwanda, Washington, D.C., Brookings Institution Press, 2001.
14. Lehrke Lee Dylan, The Banality of the Interagency: U. S. Inaction in the Rwanda Genocide, in Richard Weitz (ed.), Project on National Security Reform. Case Studies Working Group Report, Vol. II, March 2012, pp. 439-542.
15. Li Darryl, Echoes of Violence: Considerations on Radio and Genocide in Rwanda, in Thompson Allan (Ed.), The Media and the Rwanda Genocide, London, Pluto Press, 2007, pp. 90-109.
16. Magnarella J. Paul, Justice in Africa. Rwanda’s Genocide, Its Courts, and the UN Criminal Tribunal, New York, Routledge, 2000.
17. Magnarella Paul, Explaining Rwanda’s 1994 Genocide, in “Human Rights & Human Welfare”, Vol. 2, 2002, Issue 1, pp. 25-34.
18. Mamdani Mahmood, When Victims Become Killers. Colonialism, Nativ-ism, and the Genocide in Rwanda, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2001.
19. Melvern Linda, Conspiracy to Murder. The Rwandan Genocide, London – New York, Verso, 2004.
20. Peterson Scott, Me Against my Brother. At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda, New York – London, Routledge, 2001.
21. Prunier Gérard, Africa’s World War. Congo, the Rwandan Genocide, and the Making of a Continental Catastrophe, New York, Oxford University Press, 2012.
22. Prunier Gérard, The Rwanda Crisis. History of A genocide, London, Hurst & Company, 2019.
23. Reyntjens Filip, Constructing the Truth, Dealing with Dissent, Domesti-cating the World: Governance in Post-Genocide Rwanda, in “African Affairs”, Vol. 110, 2011, No. 438, pp. 1-34.
24. Reyntjens Filip, Rwanda, Ten Years on: from Genocide to Dictatorship, in “African Affairs”, Vol. 103, 2004, No. 411, pp. 177-210.
25. Sarkin Jeremy, Fowler Carl, The responsibility to protect and the duty to prevent genocide: lessons to be learned from the role of the international community and the media during the Rwandan genocide and the conflict in the former Yugoslavia, in “Suffolk Transnational Law Review”, Vol. 33, 2010, No. 1, pp. 1-53.
26. Straus Scott, Studying Perpetrators: a Reflection, in “Journal of Perpe-trator Research”, Vol. 1, 2017, No. 1, pp. 28-38.
27. Straus Scott, The Order of Genocide: race, power, and war in Rwanda, New York, Cornell University Press, 2008.
28. Thomson Susan, Rwanda. From Genocide to Precarious Peace, New Haven – London, Yale University Press, 2018.
29. Vandeginste Stef, Political Representation of Minorities as Collateral Damage or Grain: the Batwa in Burundi and Rwanda, in “Africa Spectrum”, Vol. 49, 2014, No. 1, p. 3-25.
30. Wesseling H. L., Divide and Rule. The Partition of Africa, 1880-1914, translated by Arnold J. Pomerans, Westport – London, Praeger, 1996.